A Home-Based Business Online
Sent to 5,726 subscribers
Editor: Elena Fawkner
Publisher: AHBBO Publishing
Contact By Email
IN THIS ISSUE
1. Welcome and Update from Elena
2. Home-Based Business Idea of the Week - Cooking
3. The AHBBO "Top Three"
4. Feature Article - The Sincerest Form of Flattery ...
And How to Protect Yourself From It
5. Web Watch - Patenting the Air We Breathe
6. Pro-Motion Column
7. AHBBO Build Your Own Website Tutorial
8. This Week's Subscriber Web Site Pick - Body Gourmet
11. Subscription Management
13. Contact Information
1. Welcome and Update from Elena
Hello again, and a warm welcome to all the new subscribers
who have joined us since the last issue!
As advised last week, the AHBBO Build Your Own Website
Tutorial will shortly be made available in ebook format. I had
hoped to have it done in time for this week's issue but have
been unable to complete it in time. It will be available next
Remember, the AHBBO 2 for 1 advertising sale finishes
with the summer. So get in now and take advantage of
half price advertising in AHBBO.
As always, thanks for reading and I hope you enjoy this
Remember, this ezine is for YOU! If you have comments
or suggestions for topics you would like to see addressed,
or would just like to share your experiences with other
subscribers, I want to hear from you! Please send comments,
questions and stories to Contact By Email
2. Home-Based Business Idea of the Week - Cooking School
Do you love to cook? Are you good at it? If so, have you
considered passing on your knowledge and skills to others?
If so, a cooking school may be just the home business idea
you've been looking for!
To start with, keep things small and simple by holding
classes in your own home (check with your local regulatory
authorities to make sure you comply with any necessary
regulations such as zoning, licensing and public health). As
your business grows, you can expand into conducting classes
at outside facilities such as your local homewares store or
Begin by planning a course curriculum for three courses.
You might run, for example, a beginner's or introductory
course teaching the basics over, say, 6 weeks or so. Follow
this with an intermediate course (most of the "beginners" from
your first course will, more likely than not, enrol in this one
too) and then an advanced, or "gourmet" course (which your
intermediate students will hopefully enrol in).
You would start out, naturally enough, with your beginner's
course one day or evening per week. Then, once your
beginner's course is over, start running your intermediate
course and your next beginner's course at the same time,
on different days. Then, once your first intermediate course
is finished, start running your advanced course alongside your
third beginner's course and second intermediate course.
Eventually, you'll be running three courses each week. Your
beginner's class on Tuesdays, your intermediate class on
Thursdays and your advanced class on Saturday mornings, or
whatever schedule suits you.
Once you have your basic three-course syllabus running
smoothly, you can expand even further by introducing
specialty classes in particular cuisines ... French, Thai,
Japanese, Chinese ... the sky's the limit.
Recruit your first batch of beginners from local mother's
groups by posting advertisements at your local kindergarten,
school, pediatrician's office etc.. Scheduling some of your
cooking classes around school classtimes will ensure you
can target the SAHM market and make it possible for you
to run your business while your own kids are in school!
By scheduling other classes such as specialty cuisines
on weekends and/or evenings, you will also tap into the
career worker market. After all, many full-time workers
outside the home are looking for ways to relax in their off-time.
You may find that a good proportion of enrollees for your
specialty cuisine classes come from this target market.
And don't forget to target classes to the budget-conscious
market as well. There are plenty of people out there on a
budget who would jump at the chance to learn how to cook
good, nutritious food on a shoestring.
Of course, as your business grows, you can recruit
others to conduct classes as well. Former students would
be a good talent pool to draw from.
When you set your course fees, make sure your fees cover
your materials (ingredients and utensils), your time, plus a profit
component. Require payment for the full course in advance
if you will be relying on fee income to pay for your initial
investment in utensils and ingredients. Otherwise, you may
consider allowing students to pay on a "per week" basis.
This will make it possible for the lower-income end of the
market to participate in your classes.
There are many more ideas like this in AHBBO's Home
Business Ideas page at
and Online Business Ideas page at
with more being added
all the time.
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3. The AHBBO "Top Three"
From time to time, I get emails from readers asking me what
income-earning programs I recommend. In this segment, I
give you my current "top three" ... what's working for me. Each
of these programs come with my unqualified endorsement.
INTERNET MARKETING WARRIORS
My regular best earner and all-time favorite, both as a
business opportunity and a product. The product is access
to a members-only site that is nothing short of phenomenal.
It can literally give you your start in an online business of
your own. It's how I started. Visit the above URL for a
description of what you get with a Warriors membership.
The business opportunity is the affiliate program that pays
a whopping $30 for every sale.
Initial investment: $49.95 (one-time, lifetime membership fee)
Both a product and a business opportunity, Cash Cow is an
online internet marketing manual that, once you've signed up
for yourself, you can then market to others and earn $25
a sale. Unlike its similar competitor, Cookie Cutter, you do
NOT have to pay the owner webhosting fees. You can copy
the Cash Cow web pages and host them wherever you like.
Initial investment: $25.
A suite of affiliate programs, this is one of my long-term front-
runners. Slow and steady, is how I'd describe the income from
these programs since they're targeted at the existing online
business market (and AHBBO attracts an audience that is
wanting to start an online business) but AIS is a high quality,
professional company, they pay on time and their products
4. Feature Article - The Sincerest Form of Flattery ... And
How To Protect Yourself From It
© 2017 Elena Fawkner
I received an email the other day from an online friend alerting me
to the fact that someone had copied one of the pages of my
website and was using it, virtually verbatim, at theirs. It was
first personal experience of copyright infringement. How flattering,
I thought! I imagine though that when it happens a few
times it will begin feeling decidedly less flattering and decidedly
more irritating. We ARE talking about theft, after all.
got me thinking about how to handle such situations. And THAT
got me thinking about copyright law and, in particular, how it
impacts on those of us running online businesses. After all,
this is our livelihood we're talking about.
In this article, I'm going to share the results of my research with
you. Because we're dealing with a technical legal subject here,
I want to preface this article with a strong disclaimer that I am
NOT giving you legal advice in this article. This is simply the
result of my own research and you use or ignore the information
I've included here at your peril. I neither assume nor accept
responsibility for what you do with this information. Also, this
article discusses United States copyright law. If you live outside
the United States, check your local copyright laws. Mind you,
if you're running an online business, because of the international
nature of the medium, the United States copyright laws are
relevant to you.
With that said, let's get to it. We'll look first of all at what
copyright is, what it does, what can and can't be copyrighted and
who's entitled to it. Then we move on to look at how to protect
the copyright in your own work before, finally, dealing with how to
go about using others' work without infringing their copyright.
In a nutshell, copyright is legal protection for the authors of original
literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and intellectual works.
Copyright protects both published and unpublished works. Only
the copyright owner has the right to reproduce, sell, distribute and
perform the work publicly or to authorize others to do so.
THE COPYRIGHT OWNER
Generally, only the author of the work can claim copyright to it.
There are a couple of relevant exceptions, however. Firstly,
work is "work made for hire", the employer and not the employee
is the "author". Work made for hire is work prepared by an
employee within the scope of his or her employment (as is work
prepared by an independent contractor provided that the contractor
has signed an agreement acknowledging and agreeing that the
work shall be work made for hire). So, if you're a website
designer employed by a design company, the copyright in your
work belongs to your employer, not to you. Your employer is
the author of your work.
WHAT CAN BE COPYRIGHTED?
Copyright attaches to original works fixed in a tangible form of
expression. So, for example, a dance routine created by a
choreographer and recorded in writing can be copyrighted
because the recording in writing fixes the work in a tangible
form of expression. Were the choreographer not to record the
routine, however (whether in writing, on videotape or some other
tangible form of expression), and instead just kept the routine
in his or her head, the routine would not be able to be
copyrighted because the routine has not been fixed in a
tangible form of expression.
WHAT CAN'T BE COPYRIGHTED?
In addition to works not fixed in a tangible form of expression,
other types of works that can't be copyrighted are titles, names,
short phrases, slogans and the like (trademark protection may
be available though); ideas (copyright protects only the tangible
expression of the idea, not the idea itself); procedures, methods,
systems, processes, concepts, principles etc.; and works
consisting entirely of information that is common property and
containing no original authorship such as calendars and facts
of the world.
COPYRIGHTING YOUR WORK
Perhaps the most widely misunderstood aspect of copyright
law is that it does not require registration or publication to come
into existence. Copyright attaches automatically once a work
capable of being copyrighted is "created". "Created" in this
context means when the work is fixed in a tangible form of
expression for the first time.
Under the copyright legislation, publication occurs when
copies are distributed to the public by way of sale, other transfer
of ownership, rental, lease or lending. Note that a mere public
performance or display of work does not, of itself, constitute
publication. So, just because you have a website available for
all the world to see, this does not mean that your website content
has been "published" for the purposes of copyright law. On the
other hand, though, just because it hasn't been published,
doesn't mean that it doesn't enjoy copyright protection!
As you can see from the definition of "publication", creating and
making an e-book (for example) available for sale from your site
amounts to publishing in the copyright sense. Once something
is published, it is mandatory to deposit two copies in the
Copyright Office within three months of publication in the United
States for use in the Library of Congress. If you fail to do
you may be liable for a fine of $250. Failure to deposit does
NOT, however, affect whether your work has copyright protection.
If you continue to fail to deposit your work after being notified to
do so, the fine increases to $2,500. Although there are certain
exceptions to the mandatory deposit rule, none of them apply to
our e-book example. For a full list of exceptions, see section
202.19(c) of the copyright legislation (37 CFR Ch. II). It's
available online at the United States Copyright Office at
So, if you're selling an
e-book from your site, a set of "how to" reports, or whatever,
and you're the copyright owner, you need to deposit two copies
with the Copyright Office.
As we have already seen, copyright springs into existence
automatically upon creation of work that is capable of being
copyrighted. This is known as common law copyright. In
addition to common law copyright, the copyright legislation
provides for statutory registration. There are several advantages
to registering your copyright. Firstly, it constitutes a public
record of your claim to copyright in the subject work. Secondly,
registration is a prerequisite to an entitlement to sue for an
infringement of your copyright (if the works are of U.S. origin).
In other words, if your copyright isn't registered, you can't sue if
someone uses your work without permission. Thirdly, if you
register your copyright within three months after publication or
prior to infringement, you'll be able to seek statutory damages
and attorneys' fees if you bring legal proceedings for infringement.
Otherwise, your damages are restricted to actual damages or
an account of profits generated by the infringer as a result of the
infringement. In many instances of copyright infringement, you
simply will not be able to point to a financial loss in a specific
amount. After all, if someone copies one of your content
webpages but you don't suffer a financial loss and they don't
obtain an obvious financial advantage, what's your loss or their
gain in financial terms? Registration allows you to recover
monetary damages in such circumstances. Fourthly,
registration allows the copyright owner to record registration
with the US Customs Service for protection against the
importation of infringing copies of your work.
For detailed information about how to go about registering your
copyright, visit the United States Copyright Office at
ROLE OF THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Although a formal copyright notice is not required, it can be
useful. Firstly, it puts the reader or viewer of your work on
notice that copyright does exist in the work and that alone may
make would-be thieves at least think twice before stealing your
work. Secondly, if a copyright notice appeared on work in which
your copyright was infringed, then (subject to certain exceptions
- see s. 504(c)(2) of the copyright legislation available at the
United States Copyright Office website at
) the offender
can't claim innocent infringement in mitigation of damages.
Thirdly, it makes it easier for someone to track you down and
ask for permission to use your work!
The form of the copyright notice for published work is:
© 2017 Jane Smith
Copyright 2017 Jane Smith
Copr. 2017 Jane Smith.
For unpublished work, the notice should read:
Unpublished work © 2017 Jane Smith
DURATION OF COPYRIGHT PROTECTION
For work created after January 1, 1978, the work is automatically
protected from creation until 70 years after the death of the author.
In the case of joint works, the copyright extends to 70 years after
the death of the surviving author. In the case of works made
hire and anonymous/pseudonymous works, copyright endures for
95 years from publication or 120 years from creation, whichever is
Copyright is a personal property right and can therefore be
transferred. A transfer of an exclusive right will not be valid,
unless it's in writing and signed by the copyright owner or his/her
authorized agent. A transfer of a non-exclusive right need not
As copyright is a personal property right, it can be bequeathed by
will or pass by operation of the law governing intestate succession
(the rules that govern if someone dies without leaving a will).
USING OTHERS' WORK
So much for protecting the copyright in your own work. What are
the limits of how you can use the work of others without infringing
In short, unless "fair use" applies (discussed below) you will violate
the copyright owner's copyright if you use all or any part of their
work (either as is or with trivial changes) in your work without prior
It is not an infringement of copyright, however, to use short
quotations from a work for the purposes of criticism, comment,
teaching, scholarship or research. Any quotations used must
clearly identify the name of the author and the source of the
quotation. Just use the same kinds of citations you used in your
college papers e.g. " "this is an example of how to cite a quotation"
(Doe, J., "The Work That Is Being Quoted From", 1988, page 23)" or
some other generally accepted form of citation. Note, however,
that if your use is not fair use, then merely giving credit to the
author of the work won't protect you.
As for what constitutes "fair use", this is one of those gray areas
that depends on all the circumstances. In general, the factors
be considered include the purpose and character of the use,
including whether it is of a commercial or non-profit nature (if you
stand to make a profit on the use, the less likely it is that your
use will be considered "fair use"); the amount and substantiality
of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
and the effect of the use upon the potential market for and value
of the copyrighted work. For example, if you use a tiny part
work but that part was, until you used it, confidential information
taken from a book that was shortly to be published, that may not
be "fair use" because you have effectively undermined the potential
market for and value of the book.
As a rough guide, bear the following rules of thumb in mind: first,
if you're creating something new rather than merely copying
someone else's work, your chances of falling within the "fair use"
defense are relatively better; second, don't compete with your
source; and third, less is more. The more you take, the less
Although the above issues relate equally to the online world as
they do offline, there are some additional issues that webmasters
need to think about in the copyright arena.
Firstly, just because you can download something for free doesn't,
of itself, mean you can redistribute it freely. Clip art is a
example. There are numerous sites that offer free clip art.
sites allow you to download some of their clip art images free of
charge. You can use these images for your own purposes in
developing your webpages, for example, but just because they're
free does NOT mean you can then turn around and make the
images available to someone else for free or otherwise. Under
these sorts of download arrangements, you're given a restricted
license only. The same goes for free e-books. Check whether
the author of the e-book has granted permission for it to be freely
distributed. Most do. Usually you'll find some reference
further dissemination of the work on the cover or the first page of
Secondly, consider not deep linking. Deep linking occurs when
you link to another site from your site but, instead of linking to
the home page of the other site, you link to a page within the site.
Some webmasters object to this because it can confuse the site
visitor about exactly whose site it is that they've come to.
other hand, linking to a home page can be inconvenient for the
site visitor. I know of one ezine publisher, for example, who
frequently includes links to articles written by other people in her
ezine. It irks her when people just give their home page URL
than the URL of the article itself. She reasons, why should her
readers have to go hunting for the article? If they're impressed
with the writing, they'll naturally want to stop and look around the
site. Clearly there are both pros and cons of deep linking.
up your own mind.
Finally, a word about frames. If you use frames on your website
so you can display content from other websites without it being
obvious to the site visitor that they've gone to someone else's site,
this very fact may land you in trouble. If your actions lead
site visitor thinks the content they're viewing belongs to your site,
you've probably just contravened the copyright of the owner of the
site you've linked to with your frame!
Registering your copyright is the first step to protecting the
benefits of your hard work and endeavor. There are, unfortunately,
plenty of people online today who have somehow got the idea
that everything online is free and up for grabs. As a result,
more likely than not that one day you will have to grapple with the
unpleasant reality that someone has stolen your work. Depending
on the nature and extent of the infringement, you may be forced
to take legal action. If you haven't registered your copyright
won't be able to do that. But more importantly, your work has
value. you've made an investment in terms of your time, effort
and talent. You wouldn't leave your front door open for thieves
walk in and steal your stereo. You worked hard for the assets
you have accumulated. So it is with your creative works.
are as much assets as anything else you own. So get your
copyright registered and close the front door to the thieves who
would help themselves to what you have worked so hard to create.
**Reprinting of this article is welcome!**
This article may be freely reproduced provided that: (1) you
use the autoresponder copy which contains a resource box;
and (2) you leave the resource box intact. To receive a copy
of this article by autoresponder, just send a blank email to
5. Web Watch - Patenting the Air We Breathe
Over the past couple of years, a disturbing trend has been
emerging online ... the patenting of internet "business
methods". Perhaps the best-known example is Amazon.com's
application for a patent for the affiliate program. Another is
their patent on the "one click" system of expediting online orders.
Essentially, all the one click system is, is a way for repeat
customers to avoid having to enter their personal information
after they have done so the first time when they made their
initial purchase. The use of a cookie, in other words.
These are just two examples. There are many more. Like
attempts to patent the "double click". You know, that
movement you make hundreds of times a day with your
index finger on your left mouse button.
Now, I have no problem with companies and individuals filing
patents to protect inventions, but in the case of business methods
such as these, it really does seem a bit rich that basic common-
sense methodology that is so integrated a part of the fabric of
e-commerce that it's standard practice can be capable of patent
protection. After all, how novel a concept is the affiliate program
really? It's just commission sales transferred to the online
environment. How ingenious is the cookie (which is what makes
Amazon's so-called "one-click" system possible)? Frankly, I
doubt that we wouldn't have these things today if not for
If you accept this argument, it follows that allowing these business
methods to be patented merely rewards the first past the finish line
to the patent office. Surely, patents should be reserved for
inventions, not just the first person who applies existing
methodology to a new environment.
Interesting, too, that the double click, the affiliate program and
the one-click are only considered valuable enough to patent
once they've permeated the whole of the online environment.
After all, why go to the trouble and expense of filing for patent
protection before you're in a position to hold everyone for
Take away the basic netizen's right to establish an affiliate
program or write a cookie on someone's hard disk and, in
many cases, you take away the lifeblood of their business.
You might as well hand Amazon.com a patent over the
very air we breathe.
Powerful secrets, tips, tools, and techniques for turning small
businesses into BIG paychecks:
SFI Income Opportunity
6. Pro-Motion Column - Answers for the "Pro in Motion"
by jl scott, ph.d., Director, IAPO
Q. I am an ezine publisher and I received an ad this week that
states specific amounts earned during certain periods of time.
I know that for business opportunities you can't make financial
claims and I don't know if I would be putting myself in legal
danger just for publishing an ad that might be questionable.
Do you know if there is a disclaimer that one could use in
publications to the effect that the publisher not responsible
for the actions of advertisers? (Anonymous)
A. Not being an attorney, I can't answer this question with
total certainty. Especially in the USA, frivolous lawsuits are
filed every day whether the defendant is "guilty" or not. I
think the best we can do is post a "Disclaimer" in our ezines
and hope we are never the brunt of of this type of nonsense.
Following is the disclaimer I use in MONDAY MEMO! It is placed
at the bottom of the ezine, just under the copyright
"DISCLAIMER: We disclaim any liability for the use of any
contributed information contained herein. We also claim no
responsibility for the legality or accuracy of advertisements or
articles submitted and reprinted by permission. It is the
contributor's and/or advertiser's responsibility to abide by all
pertinent jurisdictional laws and regulations pertaining to
As online professionals, it is in our best interests to carry
such a disclaimer in our ezines.
* To submit questions to "Pro-motion"
jl scott, ph.d., Author
Copyright © 2017, All Rights Reserved
This article may be reprinted with permission by including the
following resource box:
dr. jl scott is the Director of the International Association for
Professionalism Online (IAPO)
also the publisher of MONDAY MEMO! - the ezine dedicated
to upgrading Professionalism on the Web. For your FREE
7. Build Your Own Website Tutorial
The complete AHBBO Build Your Own Website Tutorial will
be available in ebook format on Friday, August 25.
You're welcome to give it away free to your website visitors
or ezine subscribers.
8. This Week's Subscriber Web Site Pick - Body Gourmet
This week's website pick is Tavane Taylor's Body Gourmet:
"I am writing to submit my site for possible publication in the
newsletter and also to thank you for posting the B*Country
site. I visited it and loved it! Thanks so much for getting the
"My website was designed by me, and my boyfriend and I
created it. (He's the FireCoal webmaster.) We have both
learned so much in creating this site and I now experience
a new appreciation for well-done sites. Even if you don't
post my site in your newsletter, I'd love it if you would visit
sometime and give us your honest feedback. I know I am
too close to it to sometimes see what could be improved.
"After visiting B*Country, I am going to adapt our free soap
drawing to include a survey like hers. We have a comments
page, but it doesn't get much interest. This survey page is
such a godsend for us!
"My site is the electronic store for a personal care products
company owned by me and my friend. We just stumbled into
the business of soap making and have so enjoyed the process.
I am a vegan (strict vegetarian) and that limits the commercial
health & beauty aids I choose to buy. To save myself time,
money, and frustration I make most of the products I used to
buy in the store. I feel a lot better about myself as a consumer
and now as a manufacturer because the products we offer are
good to the body, the earth and the other creatures living here
with us. I was explaining to Jamie of B*Country that not only
does the body deserve delicious, healthy food for the inside,
it also deserves delicious and healthy care for the outside.
That's what the Gourmet in Body Gourmet is all about.
"Thanks so much for your time and consideration. I am so happy
I found your newsletter. You know the saying, "there are no
coincidences!" Thanks for all your help via the newsletter.
Tavane's site is a beautiful creation. Simply designed with
an easy to follow navigation bar in the left frame, it is
cleverly done to evoke a sense of serenity and tranquility;
the very states that the site visitor is seeking to replicate
by purchasing the products sold at the site. Check out the
current issue of Tavane's newsletter while you're there. The
artwork is stunning. One of the most aesthetically pleasing
sites I've ever seen. Congratulations Tavane!
If you want your site seen by thousands, write and tell me
about it! But make sure it's one you've created yourself
or have had created especially for you. No self-replicating affiliate
11. Subscription Management
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13. Contact Information
Elena Fawkner, Editor
A Home-Based Business Online
Contact By Email